Medical malpractice is when a medical professional does not provide medical care that adheres with the medical standard.
Medical malpractice occurs when a patient is harmed because a doctor or other medical professional failed to competently perform their medical duties. While some state’s rules on medical malpractice may vary, there are broad categories of rules that apply to most medical malpractice cases.
Basic Requirements for a Medical Malpractice Claim
To prove medical malpractice occurred, there are a few key elements that you must prove. There are four main elements. These are proving: a doctor patient relationship, that the doctor was negligent, that negligence caused the injury, and that the injury led to specific damages. To sue for malpractice, you must show that the doctor caused your harm in a way that under the same circumstances, a competent doctor would not have. The 4 D’s that make up these elements are: duty, dereliction, direct cause and damages. Once these elements are met, the patient likely has a medical malpractice claim.
Not all cases qualify for a medical malpractice claim. Just because a patient may have been injured while under the care of their doctor does not necessarily entitle them to a claim. All medical treatments have the potential to go wrong. Doctors are not legally liable for undesirable outcomes, simply when they fail to perform their legal duties. In the same vein, health care providers are not expected to complete perfect procedure, but are expected to use legitimate skill and care.
The first element means you must prove that you had a doctor-patient relationship with the doctor you are suing. This must be a consensual relationship on both sides, where you hired the doctor and the doctor agreed to provide you a service. You cannot sue a doctor who you heard advice from on the internet or social media because you did not hire them, and you do not have a doctor-patient relationship. It can be easy or hard to prove a doctor-patient relationship even if you have one. Even if you did hire a doctor, and had a doctor-patient relationship, where they did not treat you directly, this is where the relationship can be hard to prove. It is much easier to prove a doctor-patient relationship where you were being seen and treated by a medical professional. When there is a doctor-patient relationship there is a duty of reasonable care on the part of the medical professional.
The Doctor was Negligent
To determine negligence, this must be more than the fact that you are unhappy with the treatment you received. The doctor must have been negligent specifically negligent in connection with your diagnosis or treatment. The doctor’s care is not required to be the “best possible” per se, but must be “reasonably skillful and careful.” Therefore, whether the doctor was reasonably skilled and careful makes or breaks this element of the claim. This dereliction, negligence or deviation from the standard of care is a key element of the medical malpractice case.
Th e Doctor’s Negligence Caused Injury
Even if you prove that the doctor was negligent in the course of the medical treatment, and that there was a doctor-patient relationship. This can get foggy because many medical malpractice cases involve patients that were already injured or ill. To prove the doctor’s negligence caused the injury, the standard is that it is “more likely than not” that the doctor’s incompetence directly caused the injury. Where the doctor’s negligence is the direct cause of the injury, this element is met.
The Injury Led to Specific Damages
Even if the doctor was negligent and caused injury, there is no case unless the patient suffered harm. There are specific types of harm a patient can sue for. These include mental anguish, physical pain, additional medical bills, lost work and lost earning capacity. Damages is the final element that needs to be
Common Types of Medical Malpractice :
Medical malpractice can take place at any point within the course of a doctor treating a patient. From the initial diagnosis, to the treatment itself, there are a number of times within the course of treatment where malpractice can occur. Negligence that rises to the level of medical malpractice can occur in a few different scenarios. These could be anything from failure to diagnose a harmful condition, failure to advise a patient of serious risks, and unacceptable errors during the performance during surgery or another procedure. Most medical malpractice cases fall into 3 main categories. These are: failure to diagnose, failure to warn a patient of known risks, and improper treatment.
Misdiagnosis and Failure to Diagnose
Sometimes a doctor fails to recognize and diagnose a condition that a competent doctor would have spotted. This error may contribute to a condition progressing resulting in more treatments, pain and suffering. From the initial office visit, if a competent doctor would have discovered a patient’s illness or made a different diagnosis which would have led to a better outcome than the current one, the patient may have a viable medical malpractice claim. A plaintiff bringing this type of claim would need to introduce expert 3 testimony from a doctor who can explain why a competent doctor would have correctly diagnosed the condition or diagnosed it sooner.
Failure to Warn a Patient of Known Risks
Doctors have a duty to warn patients of known risks of a procedure or treatment. This is also known as the duty of informed consent. Therefore, if the doctor does not warn a patient of possible risks, and that patient would have elected not to go through with the procedure, the doctor is liable for medical malpractice if the patient is injured in the procedure. The injury counts as long as the patient is injured in a way that the doctor should have warned could happen.
This claim can be valid where a doctor treats the patient in a way that no other competent doctor would. There could also be medical malpractice in this type where the doctor may select the appropriate treatment yet administers the treatment incompetently. With this type of medical malpractice, this could include surgical errors, anesthesia errors, child birth errors and prescription errors. Prescription drug errors mainly occur when a patient is given the wrong medication, wrong dosage or not made aware of the side effects. Many different medical professionals including doctors, pharmacists and drug manufacturers could be held responsible for prescription mistakes. While the doctor will likely be liable if a mistake happens during the prescription process, a nurse and the hospital would be liable for a mistake made during administration. Sometimes, prescription mistakes could be connected to a misdiagnosis by the doctor. Other times, the doctor may prescribe the wrong amount of medication or the nurse may administer the wrong amount. The hospital equipment may even be defective and administer an improper dose. Child birth errors occur when there is negligence during childbirth which in turn leads to harm of the mother, baby or both. Almost twenty percent of medical malpractice cases are filed against OBGYN’s. This is more lawsuits than any other medical professional receives. Negligence during childbirth could lead to certain complications such as fetal distress, spinal cord injuries and postpartum hemorrhage. Sometimes inadequate treatment or care prior to childbirth can cause harm to the mother and child, and other times injuries may arise during the birth process. Surgical errors can also be a type of medical malpractice. The errors could include certain complications such as incorrect incision site, wrong surgery site or leaving a foreign object inside the body. While many surgical errors may be the result of a surgeon’s error, most are the result of poor planning before the surgery. Some types of surgical errors are known as “never events” meaning the medical profession acknowledges certain errors should never occur. A doctor may also operate on either the wrong patient or wrong body part during a procedure. Complications and infections following a surgery may also cause significant harm and could be a surgical error. Anesthesia errors can be dangerous as well. Mistakes by an anesthesiologist can cause anything from a brain injury to death of a patient. If the anesthesiologist does not focus enough attention to a patient’s medical history or gives too much anesthesia, consequences can be deadly. A medical provider may fail to provide the patient with 4 proper instructions before the procedure, fail to monitor the patient’s vital signs while administering the anesthesia, or use defective equipment during the procedure. Anesthesia malpractice can occur anywhere from the operating room, to the pre-op and post-op recovery rooms. There can also be malpractice during sedation for dental procedures or other outpatient operations.
Your Next Steps:
Because there are special rules and procedures for medical malpractice claims, it is important to follow these rules carefully. The rules differ state by state, so paying close mind to these rules would be prudent in creating your case. When initiating your case, it is important to keep the following items in mind.
In most states you must bring a claim for medical malpractice between 6 months to 2 years. This statute of limitations means if you do not file you case within this period of time, the court will dismiss your case, even if you meet all the elements of medical malpractice. When the time period begins to start counting depends on the state. In some states, the clock starts ticking when the negligent act occurred, while in other states, it begins when the patient discovers the injury.
Some states require the patient to submit the claim to a review panel before getting the lawsuit to a courtroom. These review panels are made up of experts who review evidence and testimony to decide whether malpractice has occurred. While this decision is not a lawsuit, and you cannot get damages, the findings can be presented at trial. Courts also rely on the findings of these courts to determine if the case is ready for trial.
Some states may require that you give your doctor notice of the malpractice claim, and what you are filing about before filing.
Almost all states require that the patient present a medical expert to discuss the medical standard of care in each case, and explain how the doctor deviated from the medical standard.
Many states may cap damages to a medical malpractice patient
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